Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium (What is Data Communication) If this question is arising in your mind, then let us tell you that this is not a new word, it is called data communication i.e. to convey any information or goods from one place to another. We will know in detail in this post today.

In ancient times, data communication was done by pigeons. Which used to take someone’s letter from one place to another. After that the vehicle started being used for data communication but it used to take a long time and it used to take a few days or even a few months for any data to reach from person to person but now in the blink of an eye there is no one. Data moves from one place to another.

This is not the case in the present time, technology has developed and today other types of technology are used for data communication in the modern world. At present, Ships, Airplane, Rocket, Satellite and many other complex systems depend on Communication System for their Navigation System and through this they transfer their data from one place to another.

You can also read: Complete Information About Binary Number

Communication means exchanging information. The process by which data, instructions and information from one computer reach other computers is called data communication. In data communication, digital or analog data is transferred between two or more computers, which are connected by communication channels. Data is transported from one place to another in the form of signals.

How many types of signals are there?

Signals are of three types.

  • Digital Signals: In this, data is exchanged in electronic form, that is, in the form of binary numbers (0 and 1).
  • Analog Signals: In this data is exchanged in the form of radio waves. For example, in telephone lines.
  • Hybrid Signals: It has the properties of both analog and digital signals.

Types of Data Communication

There are three types of data communication:

1. Simplex Channel

In this, the flow of data is always in one direction, that is, this channel can communicate data in only one direction. Through this channel only one communication device can send information and another communication device can only receive information.

For example, radio signals from a radio station reach the listeners, but they do not go back to the radio station, e.g., from A to B.

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium
Simplex Channel

2. Half Duplex Channel

In this channel, the flow of data takes place in both directions, but data can flow in only one direction at a time. For example, in a telephone line, there is communication of data in only one direction at a time. For example, from A to B or from B to A.

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium
Half Duplex Channel

3. Full Duplex Channel

In this channel the communication of data takes place in both the directions. Both channels can exchange data continuously. For example, data flow in wireless can happen simultaneously in both directions at the same time. For example, from A to B and from B to A.

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium
Full Duplex Channel

Components of Data Communication

Transmitter/Sender: Transmitter is an electronic device that produces radio waves with the help of an antenna. Transmitters are used in telecommunications to produce and transmit radio waves. Sending is done with the help of message transmitter device.

Receiver: In communication systems, the message sent by the transmitter is received by the receiver.

Message: Message Text, Numbers, Signs, Symbols, Images, Sound, Video The above information is data.

Medium: Transmission Medium through which we send data from one place to another is called Transmission Medium. The transmission medium is divided into major parts, the first being unshielded twisted pair cable, shielded twisted pair and fiber optical cable.

Protocol: There is a set of rules and guidelines for data communication. which are routinely defined for each step and process during the communication between two or more computers. To handle the data successfully, the network has to follow these rules smoothly.

Data Communication Medium

  • Standard Telephone Line
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Twisted Pair Cable
  • Fiber Optic Cable
  • Microwave Transmission
  • Satellite Communication

Benefits of Data Communication

  • Save time compared to sending data physically
  • Making full use of the Processing Speed ​​and Storage Capacity of Modern Computers
  • Secure Transfer of Important Data via Encryption
  • Prevent file copying
  • Low-cost data transmission

What is Communication Media?

A medium is required for the communication of data from a computer to a terminal or from a terminal to a computer, this medium is called a communication line or data link.

How many types of communication media are there?

These are of the following two types:

(i) Guided Media or Wired Technologies

(ii) Unguided Media or Wireless Technologies

What is Guided Media or Wired Technologies?

In Guided Media, data signals flow through wires. Data communication through these wires takes place through a particular path. Wires can be made of copper, tin or silver.

Generally, these are of three types:

Ethernet Cable or Twisted Pair

In this type of cable, the wires are twisted, over which a bad conductor and another layer of outer covering (called a jacket) is attached. One of the two wires is used to transmit the signals to the receiver and the other for earthing. This cable is used for data communication over short distances. This wire is used in Local Area Network (LAN).

Coaxial Cable

High frequency data is transmitted through this cable. It is the only medium of communication of high quality. This wire is carried from under the land or sea. This cable has a solid wire at its center, which is surrounded by a bad conductor wire. A wire mesh is made over this bad conductor wire, on which there is then a layer of bad conductor. This wire is relatively expensive, but it has the ability to transmit more data. It is used in Television Network.

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium

Fiber Optic Cable

This is a new technology, in which instead of metal wires, special types of glass or plastic fibers are used for data communication. It is only light and fast moving. This cable is used for telecommunications and networking.

Introduction to Data Communication and Communication Medium
Fiber Optic Cable

What is Unguided Media or Wireless Technologies?

This technology is used for data communication due to the cost of cable and its maintenance cost is high. In unguided media, the data flow is through non-wireless communication media. The flow of data in these media is through waves. Since data communication in this medium takes place without wires (by waves), it is called ‘Unguided Media or Wireless Technology’.

Following are the details of some Unguided Media:

Radio Wave Transmission

When two terminals exchange information through radio frequencies, this type of communication is called radio wave transmission. These radio waves are omni directional and can be used for long distance communication. Radio wave transmission is cheaper than wired technology and provides mobility. But, rain, dust etc. have a bad effect on it.

Microwave Transmission

Signals in this system are transmitted openly (without any medium) like radio signals. In this system, information is exchanged through frequencies. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves whose frequency ranges from about 0.3 GHz to 300 GHz. It is unidirectional. It provides faster communication than co-axial cable. It has good bandwidth but it is affected by rain, dust etc. (i.e. bad weather). It is used in Cellular Network and Television Broadcasting.

Infrared wave Transmission

Infrared wave is a high frequency wave used for short distance communication. These waves cannot pass through solid objects such as walls etc. It is mainly used in TV Remote, Wireless Speaker etc.

Satellite Communication

Satellite communication is a high-speed data communication medium. It is the most ideal communication medium for long distance communication. Satellites located in space send signals from the station located on the ground and the satellite would expand that signal and send it back to another distant station. A large amount of data can be sent by this system to the maximum distance. It is used in Signals for Phone, TV, and Internet etc.


Q. What is the speed at which two computers exchange data called?
A. Communication Speed ​​or Rate

Q. What is the unit of measurement of speed of data transmission?
A. bits per second

Q. What is a temporarily connected circuit between two or more points called?
A. Private Leased Line

Q. Under which data transmission can only one character transfer happen at a time?
A. Parallel Data Transmission

Q. What is Binary Synchorus (BISYNC) based on?
A. Character Control

Q. What is high level data link control based on?
A. Bit

Q. Who converts the sender’s data into a code understandable by the recipient?
A. Translator


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